With the improvement of living standards, countertops have now entered the homes of ordinary people in large numbers and become the first choice for ordinary people’s home decoration. From the initial bonding gap of 1mm to 0.5mm, people have higher and higher requirements for the processing technology of the countertop. With the advancement of stone technology, countertops have even reached the level of seamless splicing.
The basic process of seamless countertop processing:
Process sheet production → material selection → cutting board → thickness setting → bonding → basin hole and plumbing hole processing → edging forming → grinding and polishing → layout treatment → inspection → packaging and warehousing
1. Production of the craft sheet
Although the stone processing technology of countertops is relatively simple, if there is no special processing technology for guidance, it is difficult to ensure that the processed countertops meet the seamless requirements.
1.1 Material quality requirements
The stone surface of the countertop is absolutely not allowed to have any stone defects.
1.2 Cutting board size and finished product size requirements
The size of the countertop depends on the installation situation of the countertop.
1) The countertop is stuck at both ends of the wall and installed: In this case, the length against the wall cannot belong, only 1~2mm smaller; the dimensions of the direction not against the wall or one side against the wall depending on the material, processing technology, and edging. Circumstances are determined. If double edging along the length direction, the width dimension must add 2mm grinding and polishing allowance, at least not less than 1mm; single-side edging allowance should not be less than 1mm. If the bottom edge of the material is severely chipped, it is necessary to add a margin not less than the length or width of the chipped edge in the width direction, and the margin will be eliminated during grinding and polishing.
2) One or both ends of the countertop are not stuck at the two ends of the wall: the length and width can be appropriately larger, and the limit is less than 5mm; the margin can be eliminated or not eliminated during polishing.
3) Special-shaped countertops: Special-shaped countertops are a special member of countertop products, and their size requirements are not so strict. However, if the countertop has installation size requirements, the order maker must understand the clear tolerance requirements of the craft bill, and add the machining allowance to the upper right end of the standard size when placing the order. For example, 1200+10 means that 10mm is added to the size of 1200, that is, 1210mm.
4) Processing technology requirements: In order to make the processed countertops truly meet the requirements of seamless countertops, many stone manufacturers will increase the size of the countertops, and then use an edge grinding machine or diamond flat milling for secondary processing. The wheel will be trimmed away from the edge of the chip. If the size is not increased, the chipping can also be milled away by the method of fixed thickness to achieve the purpose of eliminating the chipping.
1.3 Process requirements
The countertop processing technology is the core content of the countertop craft list, which determines the quality of the countertop products.
1) Cutting board requirements: The process sheet should specify what equipment is used to cut the board, the accuracy requirements of the equipment, the saw blade requirements, the size standards, and the quality requirements of the surface chipping and corner chipping after cutting the board.
2) Requirement of fixed thickness: the purpose of fixed thickness is to eliminate edge chipping on the bottom of the countertop. The quality of the fixed thickness determines the quality of the seamless countertop. The basis of the fixed thickness is the bottom edge chipping, and the width should be larger than the thickness or width of the sticky strip.
The thickness of the AB and G chart did not fix the thickness at the edge of the chipping, so the thickness was unqualified; the CD thickness line and the F chart had completely fixed the thickness of the collapsed edge, and the thickness was qualified.
When setting the thickness of the bottom edge, pay attention to choosing the electroplated milling wheel. This is because the surface of the electroplated milling wheel is flatter than the sintered milling wheel, and the surface has no arc surface. When setting the thickness, the operating speed of the machine tool should be controlled to prevent the phenomenon of low milling at the feed and exit of the fixed thickness. The flatness of the fixed-thickness surface is controlled below 0.5mm/m to ensure that the bonding seam is below 0.5mm.
3) Bonding requirements: Bonding is the most critical process in the processing of seamless countertops. If the quality of the countertop bonding is poor and the color of the glue is not well adjusted, it will greatly affect the quality of the seamless countertop glue seam.
4) Forming and edge grinding requirements: When the tabletop is formed, a grinding and polishing allowance of 1mm should be left, and when grinding and polishing, the allowance should be eliminated.
5) Basin hole processing requirements: the shape, size, edging, and size deviation requirements of the basin hole are given.
6) Quality inspection requirements for countertops: material requirements, size standards, basin holes, and water bell holes requirements.
7) Packaging requirements
Specify the packaging materials; specify the packaging method; specify the reinforcement method of the packaging box.
1.4 Processing quality requirements
The quality requirements of the countertop surface, the size requirements, the shape quality requirements of the sides, the quality requirements of the basin hole, the quality requirements of the water roar hole, and the size requirements of the inner cavity of the bottom of the countertop, are they compatible with the size of the furniture?
2. Material selection requirements
The material quality of the countertop is very demanding. Granite and quartz stone are never allowed to break; pure white marble and artificial granite, imitated jade and unpatterned stone are not allowed to be broken and repaired; other marble and artificial granite shall be reinforced after breaking. And there is no obvious trace of reinforcement after reinforcement, and the surface of the artificial stone countertop is not allowed to have pits, holes, or sand holes, otherwise, it is easy to trap dirt and absorb water, which will affect the surface quality of the countertop.
3. Cutting board requirements
3.1 Requirements for equipment
1) The precision of the cutting board equipment can be controlled within ±0.5mm; the diagonal accuracy can be controlled within ±0.5mm.
2) The working surface of the equipment is flat, the liner on the table is basically intact, and there are few saw seams; the cut board has the bottom edge of the chip and fewer corners.
3) The size of the edge chipping does not exceed 1mm (depth) * 2mm (width); the requirement for the opposite side of the cut board is no chipping or jagged edge phenomenon.
4) The main shaft of the equipment is operating normally, and there is no jumping phenomenon.
5) There is no oil leakage in the equipment because oil leakage in the equipment will contaminate the countertop.
6) The water quality is required to not pollute or corrode the board surface. For white, jade, and rust-prone stone, it is best to use clean water cutting boards.
3.2 Saw blade requirements
Choose a saw blade that matches the type and hardness of the stone.
Choose a saw blade cutting board with a diameter that matches the depth of the sawing board.
The new saw blade must be sharpened before use. When installing the saw blade, install it in the direction of the arrow.
3.3 cutting board parameter requirements
During the cutting process, control the walking speed of the saw blade. First, cut the board at a lower speed, and then gradually increase the walking speed of the saw blade. During the cutting process, observe the chipping of the board until slight chipping appears on the board. Do not increase the cutting speed; for materials that are not prone to chipping, judge whether the cutting speed is appropriate by the sound during cutting.
Increase the amount of water during the cutting process to ensure sufficient water on the saw blade and adequate lubrication.
If there are cutting board parameters, please refer to the cutting board parameter sawing table panel.
3.4 Cutting board quality requirements
When cutting the board, pay attention to avoiding various defects of the stone, avoiding cracks, dark spots, color lines, stains, sweeping flowers, pink lines, bee clusters, and serious yin and yang colors.
When cutting the board, control the cutting geometric size, angle size, and diagonal size to be accurate.
Control the quality of the board surface during cutting, and no edge chipping or corner drop is allowed. If the back of the countertop needs to be bonded, ensure that the edges, edges, and corners of the back are intact to ensure the processing quality after bonding, grinding, and polishing.
When cutting boards, pay attention to the color and texture difference between the previously cut material and the current cut material, especially the difference between the same set of countertops.
In order to ensure that the seam between the adhesive strip and the countertop can meet the seamless quality requirements, for some materials whose edges and corners are unavoidable, a processing allowance of 3～5mm can be added to the edge of the bonded part or through a fixed thickness. 2mm method to eliminate edge chipping and corner chipping. For the lengthwise bonding, you can add 3~5mm in the width direction; the widthwise bonding side can be 3~5mm margin in the length direction. After bonding the edges, use edging or trimming to eliminate the binding margin.
Standard size of countertop plate: length (0, -1); width (-3, 3); thickness (-1, 1). For some countertops matched with furniture, special attention should be paid to the control of the dimensional accuracy of the cutting board.
3.5 Placement requirements
The tabletop must be placed with the smooth side facing forward, and the smooth side and the back must be separated by a non-fading spacer or foam, and the surface of the board must be kept clean.
The big board is in the back and the small board is in the front; the longboard is in the back and the shortboard is in the front. All boards are placed in a vertical position and horizontal placement is strictly prohibited. Prevent the small board from being crushed by the big board, leading to repairing of the fracture and affecting the quality of the board surface.
3.6 Transshipment requirements
Before the countertop is transferred, it must be checked whether it is placed according to the above requirements and tied up with a binding strap.
Forklift transfer, or hand-drawn forklift transfer.
Vertical handling is suitable for plate handling during processing.
4. Special-shaped countertop processing
The processing methods for special-shaped countertops include manual cutting and mechanical cutting. The water jet machine is the most commonly used equipment for processing special-shaped plates. It has high processing accuracy, can process any curve, and has extremely high production efficiency.
Control the shape of the special-shaped plate, under normal circumstances, the deviation is controlled within 1mm, but the special-shaped plate of the waterjet machine processing table depends on the burr of the special-shaped plate processed by the waterjet machine when the thickness of the cutting plate or the material is very hard For stone, it is necessary to further enlarge the grinding allowance, and achieve the processing quality requirements by grinding.
The hand-cutting tool for special-shaped countertops is a hand-cutting machine, which is cheap and flexible. When cutting, first draw a line with a standard template, cut the special-shaped plate with a hand cutter according to the line, and then manually polish the tabletop to the standard.